China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (5YP) is the most authoritative vision statement of China’s economic and social goals and the policies needed to achieve them. The plan sets out ambitious targets to make China a “moderately prosperous society” (小康社会) by 2020 by rebalancing the economy toward advanced technologies, greater environmental protection, and a stronger social safety net. Although much happens in China’s economy outside of and even in spite of such plans, understanding the 13th Five-Year Plan is critical not only to those Chinese officials responsible for implementing it, but also for Chinese society, the global business community, and stakeholders everywhere affected by trends in China’s economy, society, and politics.